The oldest of the metasedimentary rocks are now largely migmatised (Central Highland Migmatite Complex) and there is still debate as to whether they are stratigraphically part of the Grampian Group of the Dalradian or constitute an earlier basement; this handbook will take the former view. Nevertheless, the overall general structure is fairly well understood. Different components of the arc shown north of Avalonia could have collided with this continent at different times between the pre-mid-Arenig (Penobscot Phase) and the late Caradoc (van Staal et al. Summary of the geology. The Palaeogene and Neogene appear to have been mainly times of erosion in the Grampians; little evidence of deposits remain apart from some deep weathering profiles and gravels of probable fluviatile origin in the north-east which are interpreted as being of Neogene age. Deposition of shallow-marine deposits continued and formed the Argyll Group, but growing instability on the shelf led to development of relatively small fault-bounded basins. Thick dykes of quartz-dolerite, the northern edge of a swarm which is centred in the Midland Valley, occur in the Southern Highlands from Loch Awe to Aberdeenshire and are of late Carboniferous to earliest Permian age. The Dalradian sedimentary rocks, many kilometres thick, are mostly of shallow-water origin, although deeper-water turbidite deposition became predominant in late Dalradian times. We use cookies to provide you with a better service. Here’s a diagram showing a section through the land below. The Grampian Mountains, Am Monadh in Gaelic, are one of the three major mountain ranges in Scotland, ranging from the southwest to the northwest between the Highland Boundary Fault and the Great Glen. The higher ground, which would eventually become the Grampian Mountains and Northern Highlands, was a rocky upland desert while vast sand seas accumulated in some of the fringing lowlands forming aeolian dune-bedded red sandstones, beautifully exposed today on the east coast of Arran and in some gorge sections of the river Ayr near Mauchline. from the Grampian Mountains into the Moray Firth, is an example of Grampian's dynamic geodiversity. Journal of the Geological Society, London 170, 603 –14. Stable shallow-marine deposition followed, resulting in deposition of quartzite-shale-limestone sequences of the Appin Group, in which some stratigraphical units maintain a constancy of character across the Grampians from north-east to south-west, and even into Ireland. The only pre-Caledonian basement rocks exposed appear to be the metamorphosed acid and basic plutonic rocks of the Rhinns of Islay and Colonsay, dated as about 1800 Ma (million years old) (P915452); they are not correlatives of the Lewisian gneisses of the foreland to the north-west of the Great Glen Fault. 1998). The late Palaeozoic is also represented by two suites of minor intrusions. Although north-west of the Highland Boundary Fault, this has stratigraphical affinities with the Midland Valley, and includes a condensed sequence of Carboniferous strata extending up to the Coal Measures. Rare layers of volcanic rock also occur in the Dalradian rocks. Apart from some Carboniferous rocks along the Highland Border and a small area of Permian to Jurassic rocks near Lossiemouth, the only significant post-Devonian deposits are the widespread Quaternary glacial deposits. Sediment was deposited at the ocean edge in water that would deepen from time to time due to movement on geological faults. Using a tourist guide-book, she goes on a journey through the Grampian mountain range. Scotland’s five foundation blocks came together in a series of continental collisions that ended 425 million years ago. Geomorphological evidence for ice streaming in the Great Glen and Spey Valley to the northeast and southwest of the The mountains are composed of granite, gneiss, marble, schists and quartzite. Geology; 47 (8): 734–738. England's Lake District is, as its name suggests, known for its many scenic lakes. But this is likely to have been hundreds of kilometres away from the Moine and Lewisian-like rocks that now form the foundations of the Northern Highlands. These suggest that up to three periods of glaciation occurred between 800 million and 500 million years ago. Scotland’s geodiversity reveals how. The total area of the United Kingdom is approximately 245,000 square kilometres (94,600 sq mi), comprising the island of Great Britain, the northeastern one-sixth of the island of Ireland (Northern Ireland) and many smaller islands. British regional geology: the Grampian Highlands. The sediments that formed the Dalradian rocks must have been deposited on eroded older rocks. A narrow zone of greenschist facies rocks at a low structural level is preserved adjacent to the Great Glen Fault Zone. All of these igneous rocks constitute the Caledonian Igneous Suite. The Mountains The mountains of Glencoe are built from some of the oldest sedimentary and volcanic strata in the world. His principal childhood associations, however, were with the New Forest near Southampton, England, where his parents moved before he was two years old. England The mountains are composed of granite, gneiss, marble, schists and quartzite. Read the latest official statistics published today showing woodland birds appear to have recovered from a short-term decline. Since Devonian times, however, the area has been mainly one of erosion. Inland from the Moray Firth and North Sea coasts, however, there are various isolated occurrences of older interglacial peats and glacial tills and gravels. Apart from two other small occurrences in the South-west Highlands the only other Carboniferous sedimentary rocks occur in the Machrihanish Coalfield on the Kintyre peninsula. Along the Highland Border near Loch Lomond, Old Red Sandstone facies rocks of Devonian age pass up generally conformably into cornstone-bearing sandstones of Lower Carboniferous age. They were subsequently moulded, sheared and repositioned by a geological event known as a ‘cauldron subsidence’ which took place 380 million years ago. The Grampian Highlands region covers a large area and understanding its complex geology calls for a wide variety of geological expertise. Scotland - The Northwest Highlands, the Cairngorm Mountains, the Grampian Mountains and the Southern Uplands. The Caledonian mountains of eastern Greenland, reaching from 70°–82° N, flank the eastern edge of the Greenland ice dome. the Northern Appalachians), resulting in the Grampian and Taconic Phases of the Caledonian Orogeny. The Moray–Buchan coastal area represents the southern margin of the large, continental Orcadian Basin. Fourth edition. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php?title=Summary_of_the_geology_of_the_Grampian_Highlands&oldid=34545. The Moine Supergroup, following the Grampian and Scandian events, was re-arranged into a major series of nappes. Early magmatic activity, already noted in the upper parts of the Dalradian sequence, is also found in small amounts at lower levels in the Appin and Grampian groups, and even in the migmatite complex, as small basic intrusions, now mainly represented by amphibolites. The Grampian Highlands are mostly made up of metamorphic and igneous rocks, part of the eroded root zone of the Caledonian mountain belt, which developed in late Precambrian to early Palaeozoic times (P915452). But the national park also has a rich, multi-layered geologic history dating back half a billion years. Numerous thin dykes and small vents of alkaline lamprophyre occur in parts of the South-west and Central Highlands; they are younger than the quartz-dolerites, but have yielded some older radiometric ages. Lyell was born at Kinnordy, the stately family home at the foot of the Grampian Mountains in eastern Scotland. GAP: Geodiversity Action Plan – a document with objectives, targets, and indicators to measure, maintain or enhance the geodiversity of an area. are home to a wide variety of environments, and this explains its unique geologic location. created a range of high mountains. Black is oceanic crust, yellow stippled is sediment3.Let’s start from the left. Grampian Mountains, mountains in the Highlands of Scotland.They derive their name from the Mons Graupius of the Roman historian Tacitus, the undetermined site of the battle in which the Roman general Agricola defeated the indigenous Picts (c. ad 84). It involved early recumbent nappe folding, probably directed towards the north-west overall but with at least one major SE-facing fold, the Tay Nappe, which dominates the Southern Highlands. those of Tomintoul, Cabrach and Rhynie) or on the periphery (e.g. Generally, the metamorphism reflects the stratigraphy with the highest grade (upper amphibolite facies) being in the older rocks of the north-west and the lowest grade, greenschist facies, in the youngest Southern Highland Group rocks along the Highland Border. Reprint 2007. Examples include the Grampian mountains in Scotland and the Cumbrian mountains in the Lake District. The two major boundaries of the Grampian Highlands—the Great Glen and the Highland Border—are both spectacular scenic features. Helping farmers and crofters to manage the impact of white-tailed eagles on their livestock. Discover grand and rugged mountain ranges, spectacular wildflower displays, a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, and a wealth of Aboriginal rock art sites in the Grampians National Park. The Grampian Terrane – a record of sediment accumulation in long lost oceans, extreme ice ages and Himalayan-sized mountains, by Alex G. Neches. Tackling raptor persecution, poaching and hare coursing will be top priorities covering all of Scotland. As it sinks, it is squashed and heated, starting a complex process that ends with molten rock reaching the surface. In the south-west, however, there are several swarms of dykes, mainly basaltic, associated with the volcanic centres of the British Tertiary (Palaeogene) Volcanic Province, notably those of Mull, Arran and the submarine Blackstones Complex. The nappe folds were deformed by subsequent folds and thrusts of generally similar trend and form, and by a series of later, generally upright folds which trend in a variety of directions; they include a major monoform or downbend along the Highland Border. These are probably the result of the high local heat flow which also resulted in the intrusion of large volumes of basic and acid plutonic igneous rocks there. There are also rock layers that contain rock fragments that appear to have been transported out to sea on rafts of ice. Scotland: The Creation of its Natural Landscape. North of the Central Highlands, the fault-controlled Moray Firth Basin (an embayment of the North Sea) developed from the southern part of the Orcadian Basin with more or less continuous deposition from Late Devonian times to the present. The name usually refers to the entire mass of the central Highlands between Glen Mor and the wall-like southern edge that overlooks the Lowlands. Ben Nevis is the UK's highest peak and is found in the Grampian Mountains. The area is generally sparsely populated, habitation limited to farmsteads and isolated villages in the glens, with some larger villages in the mountain passes or holiday resorts. At a depth of about 6km, the magma cooled to form granite, however subsequent uplift and erosion brought the granite to the surface by about 50 Ma. Around Oban there is also an extensive development of andesitic lavas within the Lower Old Red Sandstone. It is evident that the post-orogenic plutonic rocks were intruded during a phase of very active uplift and erosion so that by early Devonian time the area of the Grampian Highlands was one of considerable relief in which the full range of Dalradian metasedimentary rocks and Caledonian igneous rocks was exposed at the surface. The mountains are the eroded remains of a massive body of magma that rose upwards in the crust during the Devonian. Grampian Highlands: geological foundations. Late Precambrian metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of the Dalradian Supergroup, and a wide variety of igneous rocks intruded into them, form most of the Grampian Highlands. The resultant deposits generally show poor stratigraphical continuity (although one barium-rich horizon extends intermittently for about 90 km) and increasing influence of turbidite deposition. Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks are now found in large basins of deposition to the north and south of the Grampians and in small internal basins, but may formerly have extended over much of the region. Over much of the area there is evidence of considerable glacial erosion, but deposits are mostly confined to those of the last (Late Devensian) glaciation; these include tills, various fluvioglacial deposits and, near Inverness, glaciomarine sands and gravels. Scotland at 78,772 square kilometres (30,410 sq mi),[2] is second largest, accounting for about a third of the area of the UK… The protoliths of the migmatites and of the Grampian Group were mainly sandy sediments (the main rock types now are various psammites); most were shallow-marine shelf deposits but there are indications of penecontemporaneous faulting which led to development of small basins in which more muddy turbiditic sandstones accumulated. This general pattern is, however, modified in the North-east Highlands where there is extensive development of migmatite in the Argyll Group rocks of Angus and southern Aberdeenshire, and in northern Aberdeenshire where there are lower pressure–high temperature andalusite- and sillimanite-bearing assemblages. The Grampian Highlands – Argyll region, is underlain by deformed and metamorphosed rocks. GAPs often include an audit of the Slates and gneiss are also evidence of the high pressure and temperatures that caused the clay to metamorphose as mountains were formed. Discover the Caledonian Orogeny. The rocks are mostly clastic— scree breccias, conglomerates, sandstones and siltstones. The Dalradian rocks of the Grampian Highlands that we see today are the eroded roots of … The Dalradian rocks, which formed from this sediment, include: Later, the Dalradian rocks were heated and compressed by the continental collisions that brought together Scotland’s foundations. Dalradian rocks were originally layers of sediment deposited 800 million to 500 million years ago at the edge of the Iapetus Ocean. There is no unequivocal evidence of Cretaceous rocks in situ in the Grampian Highlands but they occur offshore to the north and east and may have encroached on land; indeed the present river system has been interpreted as having developed initially on a Cretaceous cover, and angular flints are common in some Quaternary gravels. The Grampians. The Northern Highlands Terrane abounds in such features. In Britain, the mountains have a NE – SW trend. 4.2). The Grampian Highlands portion of the Caledonides belt is very well defined by two major dislocations, the Great Glen and Highland Boundary faults (P915411). part of the Grampian mountains - a component of the Caledonian fold mountain chain which stretches from northern Norway through Shetland, then on via Scotland to Ireland and Wales. Cookies to provide you with a better service official statistics published today showing woodland appear. A wide variety of environments, and Gould, D. 1995 climates shaped world-famous... 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