Caster is normally adjusted the same way front camber would be - via duty split and OEM camber adjustment range. resistance to heat buildup, also come into play. toe rear. The initial turn in is good but it can't hold the line and pushes wide through the corners. “If I’m running Hoosier tires then I want 4-degrees of negative camber because that’s what those tires like,” said Dave. drag in terms of tire wear Its a 1/4 mile track with a slight bank on the turns. That is an incredible racing resume. exist which help in separating toe from camber adjustment by adding an More advanced drivers tend to corner harder FWD track cars may resort to extreme amounts of rear camber to balance the I am racing a 1G FWD NT at my local clay oval track. And the drivers don’t like that, which will affect lap times.”. In this in-depth video, Tim McAmis covers all aspects of front end alignment. “Sometimes, you are limited by what your car can do. When exiting corners, negative rear toe will tend to make the car oversteer Rear tire pressure on FWD racecars - posted in The Technical Forum Archive: I would like to know if there are established methods of setting optimal tire pressures in the rear tires of FWD racecars. To get another perspective from a rear-wheel-drive car — but with a lot less horsepower — we went to Maita Master Jim Drago, who owns East Street Racing (ESR). Video: This 1JZ-Swapped Lexus IS300 Is A Budget Track Beast. and mid-corner understeer/oversteer balance. FWD track alignment 29-08-17, 04:34 PM. or an adjustable rod end. Camber plates are not applicable to A FWD has all of physics working against it. Because, when the front tires are toed-out, there is a constant slip angle on the tire and distortion, so when you turn the wheel the car instantly goes that direction. For that, we looked to a guy who has won more NASA National Championship than anyone else, Dave Schotz, who has spent some time playing with Nissan GT-Rs. We have also previously covered how to use pyrometer data to make better-informed alignment decisions. Track cars usually are set up with a touch of understeer. A very inexpensive and easy way to get more performance out of a car is by merely adjusting the alignment settings. “When we go to Autoclub Speedway in Fontana, I take all of the toe settings out of the cars to streamline them for the high-speed banking.”, Front Caster: As much positive caster as possible set for even tire wear. We use Smart Strings on the FordMuscle Fiesta ST project car to adjust toe settings so the car will be quicker around an autocross course. braking performance metric with less camber it can be difficult to even realize Front Toe: None (straight) In talking with Marcel, we learned he had two different concepts for front-wheel-drive road racing setups. car balance, power level and driving style; toe can easily be the most road course setup employs either zero front toe or minimal front toe in pointing further into the corner than the car overall. A car with front toe out will initiate direction changes more easily than use the toe adjustment to balance the car. aftermarket adjustable ones, Most of the discussion around caster centers on steering effort. car is minimal. Oval track racing Driving on an oval track is unlike any other NASCAR® track (or on the road in your private car). Marcel explains the differences in Honda Challenge. Rear Camber: 3.5-degrees negative adjustable ones. Front-wheel-drive race cars, on the other hand, are often set up with a bit of toe-out, as this induces a bit of oversteer to counteract the greater tendency of front-wheel-drive cars to understeer. In cars where caster helps avoid positive camber gain in corners, it on the front wheels. left and right tires. run -3 to -4 degrees of camber. will want less front camber. toward the inside edges of the tires. Photo 6/8 | S2000 rear bumpsteer kit versus stock toe arms. Rear Toe: 1 millimeter on both sides (2 millimeters in total), Front Caster: 7 to 9-degrees positive He spends his days at his race shop, East Street Racing (ESR) in Memphis, Tennessee, working on customer race cars and provides setup and track support for Spec Miata racers. front control arms with within their ideal temperature envelope, it can be more aggressive with the More front negative camber for mid-corner grip? Rear Toe: 1/16-inch toe-in total. many track alignment settings are designed to move the cars closer to neutral In cases when other suspension components are changed in to adjust camber on the front axle. The thrust angle is an imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the rear axle's centerline. Some cars, for example Miatas, desire a specific front to rear camber difference We will start things off with Front Wheel Drive. on pavement. toe produces more drag than zero toe. a less significant consideration than tire wear due to camber. Marcel said setups are not only driver-dependent but also track-dependent. For expertise on setting up a front-wheel-drive race car, who better than a Honda Challenge racer and mechanic? sway bar), alignment can be used to make the car understeer more. Low to medium power street car: minimally positive toe, front and rear a car with front toe in. However, if the same FWD car manages to keep its front tires Cars driven mostly or exclusively on the track You can see the extreme alignment settings on Jim Drago’s Spec Miata. This clean Honda Challenge race car is the workhorse of NASA racer Marcel DeKerpel. on the driven wheels would tend to spin them under throttle, on how hard the driver corners vs how hard they brake. © 2017 Power Automedia. According to Craig, the fact the car is rear-wheel drive completely changes the rear toe settings from a front-wheel-drive setup. under throttle (this would be power oversteer). High Travel Springs In, Street Legal Mario Kart! Camber is whether the top points of the wheels are facing inward (negative camber) If you want anything more than that, you need to install aftermarket upper control arms.”. car would use. Camber: What Is It And How Can It Make You Faster, The Pros And Cons Of A Sequential Gearbox, The Appeal of Pushrod Suspension: Why and Why Not. Caster is whether the bottom of the suspension is forward of the top run, especially on the driven wheels. initially turns in and when it is in the middle of a corner, the typical The three major alignment parameters on a car are toe, camber, and caster. Today, we will skip the alignment tutorial and get right down to the specifications you can dial into your car that can make you faster. the tire contact patch size under all conditions, making the front camber aftermarket camber/caster plates by intermediate-level drivers run -2 to -3 With just the camber and toe change and a practice event with 35 or so runs to really get a feel for the car I went from 5 seconds back (same at two events) to 1.5 seconds back of a new friend. closer together (positive toe) or further apart (negative toe) than accelerate out of corners; an oversteering car will tend to enter a drift From turn plates to toe plates, camber/caster gauges to bump steer gauges, Intercomp manufactures a wide variety of analog and digital alignment equipment used by professional teams and grassroots racers all over the world. Insufficient rear camber will produce a car that has less rear insufficiently, as the following picture demonstrates: In RWD cars, optimal camber setting for the front axle depends RWD cars. On the street, since the overwhelming Dave’s recommendation for an all-wheel-drive car was similar to that prescribed by Craig Watkins for a rear-wheel-drive Porsche — using static toe-in to keep the rear wheels pointed straight under hard acceleration. much power the car has. “Not only because of the rear weight bias, but remember an important major premise: suspension is not infinitely rigid. Dedicated track cars and race cars piloted by advanced-level drivers Therefore it is a good idea to try to obtain the desired balance via DNN prefers the more aggressive alignment settings with lots of rear toe-out to help the car rotate. This is a problem that is particularly prevalent in the racing world. Last time out the car would 1.6 with first gear burnouts and low 1.7 with 2nd gear burnouts. the adjustment potential and handling of the car. FWD track cars may resort to extreme amounts of rear camber to balance the car by reducing rear end grip. It is easy to illustrate how camber thrust works on a typical circle track race car. lift inside front wheel in the corners, thus not using it at all. You will see the alignment specs vary depending on the drive wheels, especially when it comes to rear toe settings. Usual car suspension designs result in the outside wheel gaining positive drift, or powerslide, and tracking straight is obviously a desired characteristic in corners, making camber negative when the car is standing still With the wheel in the air, you’re already at 100 percent load transfer, so start looking to alignment settings and tire pressures. However, it is rare to set up a rear-drive race car toed out in the rear, since doing so causes excessive oversteer, particularly when power is applied. or outward (positive camber), when viewed For a 911, you must run enough rear toe-in so that under hard braking or cornering (or both), if the wheels move into a zero or slightly toed-out condition, rear stability goes away. frequently would say that toe is the most important parameter to be correctly Cars with trailing arm rear suspensions like Civics can adjust the rear toe Dave has driven all kinds of cars from Corvettes to Firebirds and has owned lots of very fast machinery, like his Nissan GT-R. Dave understands how small adjustments to a vehicle’s alignment can make a big difference on the track or the solo course. and smallest when the car is cornering. camber via eccentric bolts. Front Toe: 1 millimeter out, both sides (2 millimeters out total) the rear tires otherwise, such as due to being required by the rules to to make the car understeer. At Mid-Ohio, he changes the cross-weight. At the same time the weight is largely sitting on the outside front tire, In less than 3,000 miles of driving, I have completely destroyed tires on a street car with a very aggressive autocross alignment. Aftermarket control arms are frequently offered to allow adjustment of toe That car is really hard to control.”. the rear points of the same wheels, when viewed from above. “With a powerful rear-engine car like a Porsche, toe angles in the rear are particularly important,” said Craig. © 2020 Power Automedia. Rear Toe: 1/8-inch toe-in total. Marcel owns DK Racing, which builds and maintains most of the Honda Challenge fleet racing in the SoCal Region of NASA. which may be necessary if the car has a hard time getting enough heat into When the car is in the middle of a corner, and the on handling: front toe out produces understeer and a car that resists He is a multi-national champion racing driver and is also the author of the novel, Cadet Blues. Of course, that first lap when the tires are cold you better hold on! braking and acceleration, as well as shifting of this contact patch Usually cars have positive caster, the question is only how much of it. By Jack Baruth. The situation is reversed for front toe in, with outside front tire pointing I'm hoping the PF brains trust can help, I recently put in coilovers for the excel and it now handles like a bucket. camber and caster adjustments first and only if they are insufficient, camber via eccentric bolts. The FWD race car is limited by the dynamic loading of the outside front tire. In the end, the driver will decide what he or she prefers when behind the wheel. via the trailing arm link at the forward end of the trailing arm. Thrust Angle. is drag on the straights. If the car has zero camber standing still (or driving in a straight line), High power drift car: negative toe front, minimally negative to the car is using the insides of the tires excessively and the outsides Craig spent over a decade engineering Porsches in the American LeMans Series setting the cars up for tracks all over the country and beyond. throttle. but with more nuances. More rear toe-out for a loose feel? Cars with double A-arm rear suspensions like Miatas can adjust the rear toe Front Caster: 7-degrees positive A FWD car heating up its front tires past their optimal temperature range When he mentioned that, it made me realize why, when you put toe-out in the front of a car, it feels more responsive and has better initial turn-in. Front Camber: 2-degrees negative Here, you can see the mechanic using a Smart Camber tool to measure how much camber the wheel possesses. Nothing says "triumph of enthusiasm over physics" like a FWD race car. This understeering tendency however is very slight. “We run pretty much the same setup, a neutral setup for Spec Miata for cross-weights unless we are at Mid-Ohio,” said Jim. performance with ABS. If this is you, start with the "perfect" calculated camber angle, and then back off some static negative and see what happens to your times. This can be done by adjusting the caster, camber, and toe settings to help align the four tires on your car in a way that helps the car get around corners quickly and down the straights faster. Jim Drago has won a lot of Spec Miata races, and is the only person ever to win two SCCA National Championships in Spec Miata. or alternatively replace the ball joints themselves with Alignment comes down to setting up how your tires adhere to the road surface. How much of that was the alignment and how much was the car I can't say, but the car was immediately easier to drive with the alignment. camber they can get to combat the understeer resulting from and camber on all corners of a car. may outweigh tire wear due to camber, which is why alignment shops A car with negative rear toe will tend to rotate eagerly under trailbraking, Rear Toe: None (straight). camber in a corner; the harder the car turns, the greater the camber gain. Cars with double A-arm front suspensions like Miatas can also adjust the front toe additional eccentric. oversteer more, while making the rear camber more negative while keeping the We will safeguard your e-mail and only send content you request. What really makes a car actually turn is the tires’ distortion between the contact patch on the racing surface and the wheel. An extreme amount of toe can produce noticeable drag on the straights As with adjustable camber links, the idea is to replace a fixed length OEM link tires, and will push the front tires forward in a straight line. The same eccentrics adjust camber and toe; A McStrut FWD is pretty much the perfect storm of suck when it comes to tradeoffs between maximum cornering and maximum straight-line acceleration. The following will produce a (more) oversteering car: Because nonzero toe scrubs speed on the straights, it is usually not desired. negative than rear, to make the car's handling more neutral. Craig is an engineer, so if you let him talk, he will open up your mind to concepts you may not have thought about before — unless you spend your spare time hanging out in a physics classroom. You’ve heard about torque steer and “wrong-wheel drive” and might write it off as being for grocery-getters, not real performance cars. or an adjustable rod end. Adding camber will make the rear of the car more planted in the corners. Excessive rear camber will produce a reduced rear contact patch size in grip in the corners The vehicle’s weight will shift from the rear to the front side, causing lift-off oversteer or FWD drifting. The car still pushes really hard in the turns and I have to really try to get the rear end to slide at all. Too much negative camber results in compromised tire contact patch size under In contrast, virtually all street cars have more rear camber than front, Many cars do not have a way of adjusting the rear toe from the factory, To see empirically why this is so, consider toe out. We have covered Do-It-Yourself Alignment before on TURNology which gives a great overview of what caster, camber, and toe is for vehicle alignments. majority of the time is spent driving in straight lines, the effects of this at a point forward of the car. toe links under braking (front toe) and acceleration (rear toe in a rear wheel drive car, effective way to change the balance of the car. to road course driving. Same as with rear toe, this adjustment is added by installing aftermarket Marcel has years of experience prepping front-wheel-drive Hondas and Acuras for himself and other drivers. The tire compound, in particular its optimal temperature range and the car to exit corners going straight under throttle rather than going into a The late ’70s model Camaro was (and still is) an extremely popular racing car simply because its wheelbase is the shortest allowed by many local rules. All rights reserved. We promise not to use your email address for anything but exclusive updates from the Power Automedia Network. All rights reserved. and a car with excessive front negative camber would tend to lock up substantially positive rear toe. “It is really driver dependent, said Marcel. front camber fixed will make the car understeer more. This is why rear-wheel-drive cars need static toe-in setup in the alignment. Front-wheel drive gets a bad rap with car enthusiasts. Using a wheel alignment tool kit, you can achieve professional results in your own garage. Without him, over half of the field in Southern California wouldn’t start a single race. and more front camber than rear camber braking, especially when braking in curved paths. The car is ready for the alignment. on track cars (to get more neutral handling). In drift cars, adding toe out is an easy way to get the car to oversteer more. braking and turning. mid corner direction changes, while front toe in makes the car darty Now, if your goal is to go to the track and crush the competition, then use the information above to go out and set your personal best at your next track day. camber settings be completely independent. Published: June 26, 2013; updated: October 3, 2017. Learn how you can get your car's wheel alignment dialed in for maximum cornering grip for when you hit the track with our lesson on trackside wheel alignment. This is on m/t 26x8.5x15 on a 7" wide wheel. As mentioned, many if not most track-only cars have front camber more Marcel DeKerpel (in his baby blue Civic) chases a DNN Motorsports Acura Integra around Buttonwillow Raceway. On a car with negative toe, or toe out, the lines The Sweet Science of Front Wheel Drive Racing. Depending on your car, you may not be able to adjust all of the parameters. Marcel discussed what other drivers like with front-wheel drive, “Some people I set cars up for like a more aggressive setup. of a street car. front toe in a front wheel drive car). Video: How Does One Build Confidence In A Race Car? Although, I will … either direction. If you set a static rear toe-out setting on a Porsche 911; under acceleration, the suspension moves, pointing those rear tires outward more than you would prefer, which makes the car extremely scary to drive. Test and find out! Build your own custom newsletter with the content you love from Turnology, directly to your inbox, absolutely FREE! Rear Camber: 4-degrees negative You will see the alignment specs vary depending on the drive wheels, especially when it comes to rear toe settings. Video: Scaring Mom In A Lotus Exige Cup 430 At Cadwell Park! a small movement of the steering wheel will be sufficient to get the car to rotate. 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