The goal was to suppress the Patriots of the Batavian Revolution, restoring the authority of the stadtholder William V of the House of Orange. His titles are usually shortened to Duke of Brunswick in English-language sources. [14] The largest Patriot force, 7,000 men under the Rhinegrave of Salm, was quickly out-manoeuvred and forced to abandon Utrecht, which the Duke occupied on 16 September. Frederick William II of Prussia appointed him as commander of a 20,000-strong Prussian force which was to invade the United Provinces of the Netherlands (The Dutch Republic). Burgoyne was defeated in the Battles of Saratoga (1777), and his troops were taken captive as the Convention Army. The Duke was disappointed that the British remained neutral. Shortly after they married, the prince had the Schloss Richmond built for his wife. When his brother, Charles, was deposed as ruling duke by a rebellion in 1830, William took over the government provisionally. By the time, Brunswick-Lüneburg had consolidated back into two states, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover). He sponsored enlightenment arts and sciences; most notably he was patron to the young mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, paying for him to attend university against the wishes of Gauss' father. It has been asserted that the manifesto was in fact issued against the advice of Brunswick himself; the duke, a model sovereign in his own principality, sympathized with the constitutional side of the French Revolution, while as a soldier he had no confidence in the success of the enterprise. Unidentified painter Description: 16th-century portrait painting of men, with Unspecified, Unidentified or Inconnu artist and location. In April 1808, his mother, Princess Marie of Baden 1782–1808, died shortly after giving birth to a stillborn daughter when Charles was only three years old. It was in English architectural style and with an English landscape garden, to remind her of her home. [16] The Prussian force captured Gorcum on the 17th after a short artillery bombardment, followed by Dordrecht on the 18th and Delft on the 19th. William was the second son of Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and after the death of his father in 1815, was under the guardianship of King George IV of the United Kingdom. [1] In his youth he travelled in the Netherlands, France and various parts of Germany. [11] The Convention Army was kept in captivity until the war ended in 1783. However, having let the manifesto bear his signature, he had to bear the full responsibility for its consequences. William died unmarried, but had a number of illegitimate children. As the heir apparent of a sovereign prince, Charles William Ferdinand received the title of Hereditary Prince (German: Erbprinz). The Brunswick Manifesto seemed to furnish the agitators with a complete justification for the revolt that they were already planning. In 1689, he occupied the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg and passed it on to his successors. He joined the Prussian army in 1789 as a captain and participated in battles against Revolutionary France. Otto I of Brunswick-Lüneburg (about 1204 – 9 June 1252), a member of the House of Welf, was the first duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1235 until his death. On two occasions (1806 and 1818–19), her husband made serious efforts to divorce her on grounds of adultery, forming commissions of inquiry to indict her, and after he became king, he in fact caused the House of Lords to pass a bill of divorce citing adultery with an Italian commoner. I never saw him, as he served with his regiment. The duke's body was provisionally laid to rest in Christianskirche in 1806. In 1831, a family law of the House of Guelph made William the ruling duke In 1805, after his uncle, Frederick Augustus, Duke of Oels, had died childless, Fred… Prince Frederick William of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was born in Braunschweig as the fourth son of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Princess Augusta of Great Britain. permanently. William V was restored to power, which he was to hold until 1795. After a visit to Naples they returned to Paris, and thence to Brunswick. [9] The wedding was completed, but as a result of these machinations the prince remained in Britain for only thirteen days. Early years. Initially the Duke intended to winter in the fortress of Verdun, before resuming the campaign in France the following spring. William died in 1884; he passed on his private possessions to the Duke of Cumberland. [2], In 1764, shortly after the Seven Years' War had ended, he travelled to London (landing at Harwich) to marry Princess Augusta. 4 (11th ed.). George William was the second son of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.In 1648, he received Calenberg from his elder brother Christian Louis when Christian Louis inherited Lüneburg. It was therefore arranged for Charles William Ferdinand to marry a British-Hanoverian princess: Princess Augusta of Great Britain, daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales and his wife, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, and sister of the reigning King George III. William, Duke of Brunswick (German: Wilhelm August Ludwig Maximilian Friedrich; 25 April 1806 – 18 October 1884), was ruling duke of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1830 until his death. [2] At the Battle of Hastenbeck (1757) Charles William Ferdinand led a charge at the head of an infantry brigade, an action which gained him some renown. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository William VII (German Wilhelm; 25 April 1806, Brunswick – 18 October 1884, Sibyllenort), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was ruling duke of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1830 until his death. This made him hugely popular in the duchy. [3], When the American Revolutionary War broke out in 1775, Charles William Ferdinand saw an opportunity to replenish the state's treasury by renting its well-trained army to Great Britain. He was also a recognized master of 18th century warfare, serving as a Field Marshal in the Prussian Army. Both of them were married to future kings, both made extreme failures of their marriages, both had extremely acrimonious relations with their husbands, and both were accused by them of similar faults: adultery, uncouth behavior, absence of dignity, falsehood and utter fecklessness. Birth of William Raleigh Duke, Jr. Hays Farm, Jefferson, West Virginia, United States. 65 relations. The force was initially commanded by the Anglo-Hanoverian Prince William, Duke of Cumberland. The future Queen of Sweden, Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp, described the ducal family thus: The Duchess is the sister to the King of England and a typical Englishwoman. Fichier:Augustus William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.jpg. Autres résolutions : 193 × 240 pixels | 578 × 720 pixels. In 1689, he occupied the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg and passed it on to his successors. Brunswick, William Duke of - Germany*25.04.1806-18.10.1884+Portrait - undatedVintage property of ullstein bild Obtenez des photos d'actualité haute résolution de qualité sur Getty Images william, duke of brunswick and lÜneburg drei dutzend servietten, mitte 19. jh. interface language. Desc: William, Duke of Brunswick, was ruling duke of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1830 until his death.William was the second son of Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and after the death of his father in 1815, was under the guardianship of King George IV of the United Kingdom. Nicknamed "The Black Duke", he was a military officer who led the Black Brunswickers against French domination in Germany. [16] Amsterdam, the last city occupied by the Patriots, surrendered on 10 October. Cumberland was recalled to Britain and the remaining allied north-German forces were placed under the command of Ferdinand of Brunswick, brother of Charles I, who easily persuaded his nephew Charles William Ferdinand to renew his military service as a general officer.[3]. "Brunswick, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of". She looked very simple, like a vicar's wife, has I am sure many admirable qualities, and is very respectable, but completely lacks manners. [3], His father, Charles I, had been an enthusiastic supporter of the war, but nearly bankrupted the state paying for it. William, Duke of Brunswick King. Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was a German prince and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Oels. [3] The Patriots were out-manoeuvred and overwhelmed: their militias were unable to put up any real resistance, were forced to abandon their insurrection, and many Patriots fled to France.[15]. By this stage the Prussian army was regarded as backward, using outdated tactics and with poor intelligence and communication. In Paris, Louis XVI was generally believed to be in correspondence with the Austrians and Prussians already, and the republicans became more vocal in the early summer of 1792. He was the fourth son of German prince and Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand and his wife Princess Augusta of Great Britain. Born in Brunswick, the eldest son of Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. William, Duke of Brunswick (German: Wilhelm August Ludwig Maximilian Friedrich; 25 April 1806 – 18 October 1884), was ruling duke of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1830 until his death. [4][2] He received a rapturous welcome from the British people, thanks to his service with allied British troops during the war. The Duke abandoned Verdun on 8 October and Longwy on 22 October,[19] before retreating back into Germany. Francke Augustus William of Brunswick.jpg 564 × 772; 64 KB. The (second) son, Prince Georg, is the most ridiculous person imaginable, and so silly that he can never be left alone but is always accompanied by a courtier. In large part, the manifesto had been written by Louis XVI's cousin, Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, who was the leader of a large corps of émigrés in the allied army. He was the cousin and brother-in-law (from 8 April 1795) of his friend George IV, Prince Regent of the United Kingdom(from 1811). The structure of the high command has been particularly criticised by historians, with multiple officers developing differing plans and then disagreeing on which should be followed, leading to disorganisation and indecision. Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was born in Germany as Friedrich Wilhelm on 9 October 1771. Additionally, the manifesto threatened the French population with instant punishment should they resist the Imperial and Prussian armies, or the reinstatement of the monarchy. The second son, Georg Wilhelm Christian (1769–1811), suffered from an even more severe learning disability than his elder brother. George William German: Georg Wilhelm (Herzberg am Harz, 26 January 1624 – 28 August 1705, Wienhausen) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The royal houses of the former Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg had traditionally married within the family, to avoid further division of their family lands under Salic law. As such, they were not related in a particularly close degree, yet there had been many bonds of marriage between the House of Brunswick-Bevern and the House of Hanover, themselves both branches of the House of Welf. Having secured Longwy and Verdun without serious resistance, he turned back after a mere skirmish in Valmy, and evacuated France. However, the bill was never introduced in the House of Commons and the divorce was never finalized. [citation needed], Charles I died in 1780, at which point Charles William Ferdinand inherited the throne. On 16 January 1764, Charles married Princess Augusta of Great Britain, eldest sister of King George III. The Swedish princess and diarist Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte visited Brunswick in 1799; she described the Duke as "witty, literal and a pleasant acquaintance but ceremonial beyond description. The fourth son, Friedrich Wilhelm (1771 – 16 June 1815), was sound of mind and body. (Reguidit frae William, Duke of Brunswick) William, Duke o Brunswick (Wilhelm August Ludwig Maximilian Friedrich; 25 Aprile 1806 – 18 October 1884), wis ruling duke o the Duchy of Brunswick … All English Français. Brunswick and Hanover should have been rejoined at that time, but Prussia had annexed the kingdom of Hanover in 1866 and now prevented the younger branch of the house of Brunswick from taking up the ducal crown. content language. His titles are usually shortened to Duke of Brunswick in English-language sources. Charles William Ferdinand (German: Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Fürst und Herzog von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) (October 9, 1735 – November 10, 1806), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was a sovereign prince of the Holy Roman Empire, and a professional soldier who served as a Generalfeldmarschall of the Kingdom of Prussia. [citation needed] He was the first-born son of Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and his wife Philippine Charlotte. However, in 1806 Prussia declared war on France, beginning the War of the Fourth Coalition. Despite being over 70 years old, the Duke of Brunswick returned to command the Prussian army at the personal request of Louise, Queen of Prussia.[3]. George William was the father of Sophia Dorothea of … [3] He continued to serve in the army commanded by his uncle for the remainder of the war, which was generally successful for the north German forces. [8] Charles William Ferdinand defied royal displeasure by meeting William Pitt the Elder (who had been prime minister during the war but resigned in 1761) and the other leaders of the parliamentary opposition. The elder daughter, Auguste Caroline Friederike (1764–1788), was the wife of the future king Frederick I of Württemberg and mother of the future William I of Württemberg. ; 30 October 1804 – 18 August 1873), ruled the Duchy of Brunswick from 1815 until 1830. [3] The league was successful in forcing the Austrian Joseph II to back down, and thereafter became obsolete. 600 — 800 Frederick and Augusta also had three daughters, two of whom reached adulthood. The younger daughter, Caroline of Brunswick, was married in 1795 to her first cousin, the future George IV of the United Kingdom, and bore him a daughter, the ill-fated Princess Charlotte of Wales. Although the terms of surrender allowed the Convention Army to give their parole and return to Europe, the American Continental Congress revoked the convention. The electorate was ruled by the Hanoverian branch of the family in personal union with the Kingdom of Great Britain. Severely wounded, the Duke was carried with his forces before the advancing French. [3] During their travels the couple also met Pietro Nardini[5] and in 1767 the prince had his portrait painted by Pompeo Batoni. estimation. [note 1][7] However George III was less welcoming, and sought to express his displeasure through numerous small insults e.g. Media in category "Augustus William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel" The following 14 files are in this category, out of 14 total. After the Girondins had arranged for France to declare war on Austria, voted on April 20, 1792, the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II and the Protestant King of Prussia Frederick William II had combined armies and put them under Brunswick's command. It was later transferred for reburial in Brunswick Cathedral on 6 November 1819. The Encyclopædia Britannica described the Duke's invasion: "His success was rapid, complete and almost bloodless, and in the eyes of contemporaries the campaign appeared as an example of perfect generalship". [citation needed], For other people named William of Brunswick, see, Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Grand Cross of the Order of Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig, Staats- und Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Nassau, Wilhelm (Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg; 1806 bis 1884), Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden, Landgravine Karoline Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt, Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=William,_Duke_of_Brunswick&oldid=1001281251, Recipients of the Order of Henry the Lion, Recipients of the House Order of Fidelity, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Zähringer Lion, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown (Württemberg), Knights of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau, Grand Crosses of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order, Recipients of the Order of the White Falcon, Grand Crosses of the House and Merit Order of Peter Frederick Louis, Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, William Augustus Louis Maximilian Frederick, This page was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 00:50. The duke and his wife Augusta had four sons and three daughters. 1721 1721. Wilhelm (4 July 1535 – 20 August 1592), called William the Younger, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg in Lüneburg-Celle from 1559 until his death. [10] He also never married. Caroline died three weeks after she was physically prevented from entering Westminster Abbey to participate in her husband's coronation. Charles William Ferdinand of Brunswick, German Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, (born Oct. 9, 1735, Wolfenbüttel, Lower Saxony [Germany]—died Nov. 10, 1806, Ottensen, near Hamburg), duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel, Prussian field marshal, and an enlightened ruler. She makes the strangest questions without considering how difficult and unpleasant they can be.....The sons of the Ducal couple are somewhat peculiar. [3] In Paris he made the acquaintance of Marmontel. The fourth is the only normal one, but also torments his parents by his immoral behaviour. Both were decisive victories over the French, during which he proved himself an excellent subordinate commander. He soon became known as a model sovereign, a typical enlightened despot of the period, characterized by economy and prudence. William died … In August 1784 he hosted a secret diplomatic visit from Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach (Goethe was a member of Karl August's entourage). [20] However Kellerman's forces outflanked him by advancing up the Rhine, recapturing French possessions there. During the battle he was struck by a musket ball and lost both of his eyes; his second-in-command Friedrich Wilhelm Carl von Schmettau was also mortally wounded, causing a breakdown in the Prussian command. [citation needed] (Wolfenbüttel had been the capital since 1432.) He joined the allied north-German forces of the Hanoverian Army of Observation, whose task was to protect Hanover (in personal union with the Kingdom of Great Britain) and the surrounding states from invasion by the French. [12], He resembled his uncle Frederick the Great in many ways, but he lacked the resolution of the king, and in civil as in military affairs was prone to excessive caution. When news spread of a combined Austrian and Prussian army led by Brunswick marching into French soil on the days after the Manifesto was publicized, the Paris populace, already incensed by the threat against the city, exploded into violence. [3], The duke's combination of interest in the well-being of his subjects and habitual caution led to a policy of gradual reforms, a successful middle way between the conservatism of some contemporary monarchs and the over-enthusiastic wholesale changes pursued by others. Birth of Ann Duke. The visit was disguised as a family visit, but was in fact to discuss the formation of a league of small- and mid-sized German states as a counterbalance within the Holy Roman Empire to Habsburg Monarchy's ambitions to trade the Austrian Netherlands for the Electorate of Bavaria. Only in 1913 was peace sealed with the marriage of prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover to Three of their four sons suffered from major debilities. Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince of Calenberg. 1721. Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (German: Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand; 9 October 1735 – 10 November 1806) was the Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a military leader. The branch of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel died out however with Duke William on 18 October 1884. The proclamation was intended to threaten the French population into submission; it had exactly the opposite effect. He received an unusually wide and thorough education, overseen by his mother. [citation needed] In 1753 his father moved the capital of the principality back to Brunswick (German: Braunschweig), the state's largest city. Philippine Charlotte was the favourite daughter of King Frederick William I of Prussia[1] and sister of Frederick II of Prussia (Frederick the Great). Cambridge University Press. The hereditary prince's reputation improved throughout, and he became an acknowledged master of irregular warfare. Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Karl Georg August, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover), service with the British armies in America, Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp, Frederika Luise Wilhelmine, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Maria Elisabeth Wilhelmine, Princess of Baden, Ferdinand Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern, Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Duchess Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Princess Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen, Brunswick, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of, Text of the Proclamation of the Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, 1792, "BRUNSWICK-LÜNEBURG, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of", "Brunswick, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of", "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", "The Sesquicentennial of the Birth of Gauss", England expects that every man will do his duty, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_William_Ferdinand,_Duke_of_Brunswick&oldid=995711119, Military leaders of the French Revolutionary Wars, German military leaders of the French Revolutionary Wars, Prussian commanders of the Napoleonic Wars, Military personnel killed in the Napoleonic Wars, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Declared an invalid; Excluded from line of succession, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 14:00.

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